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教师招聘笔试之英语语言学必做10题

http://www.hteacher.net 2019-11-14 14:20 教师招聘网 [您的教师考试网]

中学笔试英语语言学是教师招聘考试必考的内容,广大考生在英语做题过程中,常常会为了如何论证某一现象出现的原因而煞费苦,只要把握住题型及解题策略,在遇到相关题时,一定能够手到擒来,迎刃而解。

1. Which branch of study is not included in the scope of linguistics?

A. syntax B. anthropology C. pragmatics D. phonetics

2. The distinction between parole and langue was made by _______.

A. Halliday B. Chomsky C. Bloomfield D. Saussure

3. _______ refers to the study of the internal structure of words and the rules of word formation.

A. Phonology B. Morphology C. Semantics D. Sociolinguistics

4. In the word “interchangeable”, the root is _______.

A. inter B. interchange C. change D. changeable

5. A syllable is a part of a word which contains a _______ and is pronounced as a unit.

A. consonant B. vowel C. phoneme D. pitch

6. Which of the following refers to the study of meaning in abstraction?

A. phonetics B. pragmatics C. semantics D. sociolinguistics

7. The rhetorical device _______ is a way of speaking or writing that makes something sound better, worse, more exciting, etc. than it really is.

A. hyperbole B. personification C. simile D. metaphor

8. Which of the following pair of words are synonyms?

A. junior; senior B. grateful; thankful

C. plant; tree D. apple; orange

9. The words “dad, papa, father” are examples of _______.

A. dialectal synonyms B. stylistic synonyms

C. emotive synonyms D. collocational synonyms

10. Saussure’s distinction and Chomsky’s are very similar, but they differ in that______.

A. Saussure took a sociological view of language while Chomsky took a psychological point of view.

B. Saussure took a psychological view of language while Chomsky took a sociological point of view.

C. Saussure took a pragmatic view of language while Chomsky took a semantic point of view.

D. Saussure took a structural view of language while Chomsky took a pragmatic point of view.

答案解析

1.B【解析】考查语言学。语言学的分支包括:语音学phonetics研究语音的产生、传播、接受过程,考查人类语言中的声音;音位学phonology研究语音和音节结构、分布和序列;形态学 morphology 研究词的内部结构和构词规则;句法学syntax研究句子结构,词、短语组合的规则;语义学semantics不仅关心字词作为词汇的意义,还有语言中词之上和之下的意义,如语素和句子的意义;语用学pragmatics在语境中研究意义;Anthropology人类学,故选B。

2.D【解析】A项,Halliday韩礼德是系统功能语法的代表人物;B项,Chomsky乔姆斯基区分的是competence和performance,语言能力指理想语言使用者关于语言规则的知识储备;语言运用指真实的语言使用者在实际场景中的语言使用;C项,Bloomfield 布龙菲尔德是结构主义的代表人物,认为语言学是心理学的分支,重视行为主义;D项,Saussure索绪尔把“语言”和“言语”区分开来语言指语言系统的整体,这个整体相对是比较稳定的;言语则指代某个个体在实际语言使用环节中说出的具体话语。Parole and langue指言语和语言,其区分者是Saussure。故选D。

3.B【解析】A项,Phonology(音系学)studies the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables, 研究语音和音节的构成、分布和排列规则;B项,Morphology(形态学)is concerned with the internal organization of words, 涉及词的内在结构;C项,Semantics(语义学)is about principles of forming and understanding correct English sentences, 研究语言中语义是如何编码的;D项,Sociolinguistics(社会语言学)is the study of the characteristics of language varieties, the characteristics of their functions, and the characteristics of their speakers, 研究各种语言变体的特征、它们的功能特征和语言使用者特征。研究词的内部结构和构词规则的是形态学。故选B。

4.C【解析】考查语言学的形态学。root词根承载一个单词最基本的意义,是一个单词去除所有词缀后剩下的部分。interchangeable的词根为change, iner-, -able均为词缀。故选C。

5.B【解析】考查语言学的语音学。一个音节要包括元音vowel,A项,辅音;C项,音素;D项音高;故选B。

6.C【解析】考察语言学中的语义学基本概念。对意义的研究是语义学(semantics)的定义。A项,语音学;B项,语用学;D项,社会语言学。故选C。

7.A【解析】考查修辞手法。A项夸张;B项拟人;C项明喻;D项暗喻。夸张是夸大可能性,使一件事听起来更好、更糟或更令人兴奋,故选A。

8.B【解析】考查语义学。A项,junior年少的,senior年老的,互为反义词(antonymy);B项中grateful和thankful意为感谢的,是近义词;C项,plant植物,tree是树,是上下义关系(hyponymy);D项,苹果和橘子,苹果和橘子等构成水果,是水果的下义词。故选B。

9.B【解析】考查语言学的语义学。dad和papa常用于一般场合,比如在交际用语方面;father常用于比较正式的场合或书面语中。所以三者属于文体同义词。故选B。

10.A【解析】考查语言学中的基本概念范畴。索绪尔是从社会语言学出发,而乔姆斯基是从心理语言学出发的。故选A。

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