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教师招聘笔试之如何用教育心理学理论武装我们的英文写作(6)

http://www.hteacher.net 2019-10-10 16:33 教师招聘网 [您的教师考试网]

在《如何用教育心理学理论武装我们的英文写作》之前的系列文章中,华图教师为广大考生梳理了相关理论,如晕轮效应、刻板效应等,它们可用于阐述为什么人们会对特定的人、特定的事、现象产生某种倾向性的观点的;为了帮助大家储备更多适用的教育心理学理论,本篇继续推荐写作中的高频理论,一起来学习吧。

近因效应( recency effect)

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Ø 中文含义:

指最近获得的信息给人留下深刻的印象和强烈的影响。在于熟悉的人的交往中,近因效应起很大的作用,在熟人的行为上表现出来的某种新异性,会影响或改变对这个人的原有看法,可以帮助人改变第一印象的影响,我们认识一个人既要看他过去的行为,更要看他现在的表现。(1.帮助记忆、2. 改变第一印象)

Ø 英文释义:

Given a list of items to remember, we will tend to remember the last few things more than those things in the middle. We also tend to assume that items at the end of the list are of greater importance or significance. The recency effect has most effect in repeated persuasion messages when there is a delay between the messages.If you want something to stand out in a person’s mind, use it at the end of a conversation, a written list. Don’t let it get lost in the middle. Repeat the message after a while, still with the key items at the end.

Ø 实战应用:

1. 教育相关

a.近因效应在教学中的应用-学生评价-教师形象

Both students and teachers are prone to recency effect, in which the latest performance of someone can alter previously formed opinion about him or her. In accordance with the inspiration enlightened through the recency effect, teachers should avoid negative teaching strategy. For instance, when an underachiever/a backward student makes some progress, to which the teacher should make no hesitation to sing praise. That does considerable good to changing the previously negative image harbored for him. For the teachers themselves, they are also expected to exercise strict discipline and maintain a good teacher’s image persistently.

教师要充分发挥近因效应的积极作用、避免消极影响的教学策略,如对一个(underachiever/backward student/poor students)取得的成就,老师要积极正面的评价,这有利于改变其对自身以及其他同学对他的负面评价,从而激发起学习的自信心和积极性。教师要严于律己、自始至终在学生中树立良好形象。学高为师、身正为范(rich knowledge and high moral integrity)。

b. 近因效应对教学内容安排的启示

Using Recency for Effective Learning

When you approach learning, apply the principle of recency by doing the following:

Review frequently.

Summarize to help fix the material you learned in your mind.

Restate, repeat, and reemphasize.

(2)The sequence of learning matters. We can maximize the retention of the information in a lesson by being aware and using the ideal times – the beginning and end of the lesson. “Use Primacy by doing research as soon as you discover an area where learning must take place. Then reinforce what you have learned by applying as soon as possible after the learning session.”

2. 社会相关(整容)

The viral popularity of plastic surgery

More and more people are opting for plastic surgery, assuming that “improving their appearance they can increase their competitiveness in the job market.” Despite the warning given by experts and the media for youngsters to be cautious as well as their repeated emphasis on the inner beauty or the mind. But psychological experiments seems to support the assumption that “the good-looking are more likely to succeed than people with average looks in getting help, higher salaries, promotions and praise.”

Despite this, we cannot conclude that good looks decide everything and that inner beauty is useless.

First, "getting more help" doesn't equal "success"…

Second, besides "primacy effect", "recency effect" also plays a role in influencing people's judgment. The first impression reflects primacy effect in social interaction, which has a significant impact on people's judgment. In recency effect, people tend to make judgments on the latest information they get. The two effects exist together, which means a person has countless chances to revise his/her impression after the first impression.

Third, interpersonal attraction doesn't rely only on good looks. …

系列位置效应(serial position effect)

Ø 中文含义:

是指记忆材料在系列位置中所处的位置对记忆效果发生的影响,包括首因效应和近因效应。在系列学习中,在一系列处于不同位置的记忆材料回忆效果不同;系列位置效应就是这种接近开头和末尾的记忆材料的记忆效果好于中间部分的记忆效果的趋势。其开头和结尾记忆效果较好,分别叫首因效应和近因效应,

Ø 英文释义

Serial position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst. That recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a study list. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect).

Ø 实战应用: application of serial position effect

Teach and/or learn new material first.

New information and closure are best presented during the prime-time periods.

Practice (labs/activity) is appropriate for the down-time segment.

Lessons divided into 20 minute segments are more productive than one continuous lesson.

Do not dwell on what you do not know, but dwell instead on what you have learned.

Make sure you begin and end your study session with the most important information.

This can play an important role in knowledge acquisition and can also be a factor when performing tests to assess cognitive function. Studies on this effect may be useful for activities like the development of effective advertising materials, where the advertiser wants the target to take key information away after exposure to an ad.

 

教育心理学理论众多,考生可在平时备考过程中有意识地积累,并尝试在练习过程中结合相关话题,进行灵活实践。最后,华图教育衷心祝愿广大考生能够成功迈出教师之路第一步,早日实现教师梦!

责任编辑:张欣

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