近因效应( recency effect)
Given a list of items to remember, we will tend to remember the last few things more than those things in the middle. We also tend to assume that items at the end of the list are of greater importance or significance. The recency effect has most effect in repeated persuasion messages when there is a delay between the messages.If you want something to stand out in a person’s mind, use it at the end of a conversation, a written list. Don’t let it get lost in the middle. Repeat the message after a while, still with the key items at the end.
Both students and teachers are prone to recency effect, in which the latest performance of someone can alter previously formed opinion about him or her. In accordance with the inspiration enlightened through the recency effect, teachers should avoid negative teaching strategy. For instance, when an underachiever/a backward student makes some progress, to which the teacher should make no hesitation to sing praise. That does considerable good to changing the previously negative image harbored for him. For the teachers themselves, they are also expected to exercise strict discipline and maintain a good teacher’s image persistently.
教师要充分发挥近因效应的积极作用、避免消极影响的教学策略，如对一个(underachiever/backward student/poor students)取得的成就，老师要积极正面的评价，这有利于改变其对自身以及其他同学对他的负面评价，从而激发起学习的自信心和积极性。教师要严于律己、自始至终在学生中树立良好形象。学高为师、身正为范(rich knowledge and high moral integrity)。
Using Recency for Effective Learning
When you approach learning, apply the principle of recency by doing the following:
Summarize to help fix the material you learned in your mind.
Restate, repeat, and reemphasize.
(2)The sequence of learning matters. We can maximize the retention of the information in a lesson by being aware and using the ideal times – the beginning and end of the lesson. “Use Primacy by doing research as soon as you discover an area where learning must take place. Then reinforce what you have learned by applying as soon as possible after the learning session.”
The viral popularity of plastic surgery
More and more people are opting for plastic surgery, assuming that “improving their appearance they can increase their competitiveness in the job market.” Despite the warning given by experts and the media for youngsters to be cautious as well as their repeated emphasis on the inner beauty or the mind. But psychological experiments seems to support the assumption that “the good-looking are more likely to succeed than people with average looks in getting help, higher salaries, promotions and praise.”
Despite this, we cannot conclude that good looks decide everything and that inner beauty is useless.
First, "getting more help" doesn't equal "success"…
Second, besides "primacy effect", "recency effect" also plays a role in influencing people's judgment. The first impression reflects primacy effect in social interaction, which has a significant impact on people's judgment. In recency effect, people tend to make judgments on the latest information they get. The two effects exist together, which means a person has countless chances to revise his/her impression after the first impression.
Third, interpersonal attraction doesn't rely only on good looks. …
系列位置效应(serial position effect)
Serial position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst. That recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a study list. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect).
Ø 实战应用: application of serial position effect
Teach and/or learn new material first.
New information and closure are best presented during the prime-time periods.
Practice (labs/activity) is appropriate for the down-time segment.
Lessons divided into 20 minute segments are more productive than one continuous lesson.
Do not dwell on what you do not know, but dwell instead on what you have learned.
Make sure you begin and end your study session with the most important information.
This can play an important role in knowledge acquisition and can also be a factor when performing tests to assess cognitive function. Studies on this effect may be useful for activities like the development of effective advertising materials, where the advertiser wants the target to take key information away after exposure to an ad.
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