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教师招聘笔试之如何用教育心理学理论武装我们的英文写作(2)

http://www.hteacher.net 2019-10-10 16:10 教师招聘网 [您的教师考试网]

广大考生在英语写作过程中,常常会为了如何论证某一个观点或者某一现象出现的原因而煞费苦心,往往采取的办法是用套话解释套话,显得格外苍白无力,还不具有说服力。如果脑海中能储备一些常见的教育学心理学理论,在遇到相关写作话题时,一定能够手到擒来,快速高效套用。为此,华图教师特地精心罗列高频理论,以期为考生在写作时提供另外一个思路,洞悉现象后面的“心理效应”,让在考场上呈现的作文更显高大上。

刻板效应(stereotype effect)

Ø 中文含义:

对社会上各类人的固定看法,或是对人概括泛化的看法。刻板印象一旦形成,在对人的认知中就会不自觉地简单地把某个人归入某一群体的刻板印象中去。

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如政客:精明、算计、狡诈;商人:唯利是图;理工男:矮搓穷、不善言谈、四眼男、会赚钱;美国人开放的、善谈的、热情的;英国人内敛的、深沉的、保守的;活泼好动的人一定办事毛糙,性格内向的人一定老实听话;青年人单纯幼稚、容易冲动,老年人经验丰富、保守、稳重。

Ø 英文含义:

Stereotype effect refers to the unconscious attribution of particular qualities to a member of a certain social group. It’s influenced by experience, and are based on learned associations between various qualities and social categories, including race or gender. Individuals' perceptions and behaviors can be affected by stereotype effect, even without the individuals' intention or awareness.

Ø 实战应用:

1. 教学中(老师对学生的刻板印象)

Students tend to fall victim to stereotype effect unconsciously exercised by their teachers. Once a student does poorly in his study, the case is often that he or she will be easily neglected or dismissed as unpromising and even hopeless in spite of their other outstanding merits. (for instance, their imagination, creativity, their communication ability… )

2. 找工作时(job-hunting)

Stereotype effect often misleads interviewers making them think that female interviewees are intrinsically more vulnerable than male ones. They are unfairly considered less capable, flexible and creative.

(Less-good looking applicants are more likely to be considered less competent and less qualified.

Less-good looking suspects are less likely to receive sympathy and more easily identified as the real criminal by the public.)

3.旅游时游客的不文明行为--旅游不文明行为会造成对中国人或者内地人的刻板影响(顺走马桶盖、随地大小便、涂鸦、不守秩序插队等)--国家形象造成刻板影响 (overshadowed/tainted)

(Uncivilized tourism behavior--中国人素质低)

Occurrences of impropriate tourism behavior home and abroad such as jumping the queue, spitting and littering around, making annoying noises, scratching and scrawling unsightly words, are frequently reported. They not only ruin the good mood for other travelers, but also are responsible for the formation of stereo-type against Chinese people. As implied by stereotype effect, one’s impression of a member can be extended to the group he belongs to.

本系列文章中所列理论可用于阐述为什么我们会对特定的人、特定的事、现象产生某种倾向性的观点;由于教育心理学理论众多,考生可在平时备考过程中有意识地积累,并尝试在练习过程中结合相关话题,进行灵活实践。最后,华图教育衷心祝愿广大考生能够成功迈出教师之路第一步,早日实现教师梦!

责任编辑:张欣

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