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教师招聘笔试之如何用教育心理学理论武装我们的英文写作(1)

http://www.hteacher.net 2019-10-10 16:11 教师招聘网 [您的教师考试网]

广大考生在英语写作过程中,常常会为了如何论证某一个观点或者某一现象出现的原因而煞费苦心,往往采取的办法是用套话解释套话,显得格外苍白无力,还不具有说服力。如果脑海中能储备一些常见的教育学心理学理论,在遇到相关写作话题时,一定能够手到擒来,快速高效套用。为此,华图教师特地精心罗列高频理论,以期为考生在写作时提供另外一个思路,洞悉现象后面的“心理效应”,让在考场上呈现的作文更显高大上。

晕轮效应(halo effect)

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Ø 中文含义:

指在对人的某些品质、特征形成了清晰、鲜明的印象后,掩盖了其余品质、特征的知觉。这是以偏概全,“一俊遮百丑”、“一坏百坏”。即当一个人对另一个人的主要品质、特征形成良好或不良印象后,就会影响他对这个人的其余一切不良或好的看法,好像一个人的头一旦被照亮了,全身都是光亮的一样。

Ø 英文释义:

The halo effect is a cognitive bias in which an observer's partial impression of a person, company, brand, or product influences the observer's overall feelings and thoughts about that entity's character or properties.

Ø 实战应用:

1. 教师对学生(how to be a good teacher? Treat every student equally + give an objective appraisal of each student, no matter whether they are good or poor at study;

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In the classroom, teachers are subject/prone to the halo effect rating error when evaluating their students. For example, a teacher who sees a well-behaved student might tend to assume this student is also bright, diligent, and engaged before the teacher has objectively evaluated the student's capacity in these areas. Likewise, when teacher sees a student as naughty and ill-behaved, he is likely to be classified as clumsy, lazy and irresponsible. When these types of halo effects occur, they can affect students' approval ratings in certain areas of functioning and can even affect students' grades."

2.家长对孩子

(有一种孩子是所有家长都想要的孩子)

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Authoritarian and highly demanding parents are likely to be influenced by the halo effect. They can be easily dazzled by the achievements of other people’s children and sadly overshadowed by the under-achievement of their own children in one aspect.

3. 上司对下属(偏好某些品质, 用人不当)

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In the work setting, the halo effect is most likely to show up in a supervisor's appraisal of a subordinate's job performance. In fact, the halo effect is probably the most common bias in performance appraisal. Think about what happens when a supervisor evaluates the performance of a subordinate. The supervisor may give prominence to a single characteristic of the employee, such as enthusiasm, and allow the entire evaluation to be colored by how he or she judges the employee on that one characteristic. Even though the employee may lack the requisite knowledge or ability to perform the job successfully, if the employee's work shows enthusiasm, the supervisor may very well give him or her a higher performance rating than is justified by knowledge or ability."

本系列文章中所列理论可用于阐述为什么我们会对特定的人、特定的事、现象产生某种倾向性的观点;由于教育心理学理论众多,考生可在平时备考过程中有意识地积累,并尝试在练习过程中结合相关话题,进行灵活实践。最后,华图教育衷心祝愿广大考生能够成功迈出教师之路第一步,早日实现教师梦!未完待续

责任编辑:张欣

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