The halo effect is a cognitive bias in which an observer's partial impression of a person, company, brand, or product influences the observer's overall feelings and thoughts about that entity's character or properties.
1. 教师对学生(how to be a good teacher? Treat every student equally + give an objective appraisal of each student, no matter whether they are good or poor at study;
In the classroom, teachers are subject/prone to the halo effect rating error when evaluating their students. For example, a teacher who sees a well-behaved student might tend to assume this student is also bright, diligent, and engaged before the teacher has objectively evaluated the student's capacity in these areas. Likewise, when teacher sees a student as naughty and ill-behaved, he is likely to be classified as clumsy, lazy and irresponsible. When these types of halo effects occur, they can affect students' approval ratings in certain areas of functioning and can even affect students' grades."
Authoritarian and highly demanding parents are likely to be influenced by the halo effect. They can be easily dazzled by the achievements of other people’s children and sadly overshadowed by the under-achievement of their own children in one aspect.
3. 上司对下属(偏好某些品质, 用人不当)
In the work setting, the halo effect is most likely to show up in a supervisor's appraisal of a subordinate's job performance. In fact, the halo effect is probably the most common bias in performance appraisal. Think about what happens when a supervisor evaluates the performance of a subordinate. The supervisor may give prominence to a single characteristic of the employee, such as enthusiasm, and allow the entire evaluation to be colored by how he or she judges the employee on that one characteristic. Even though the employee may lack the requisite knowledge or ability to perform the job successfully, if the employee's work shows enthusiasm, the supervisor may very well give him or her a higher performance rating than is justified by knowledge or ability."
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