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教师招聘笔试英语之搞定定语从句,图表口诀耍起来!

http://www.hteacher.net 2019-10-10 15:58 教师招聘网 [您的教师考试网]

对于英语学习者来说,单词毫无疑问是基础,而语法则是架构,单词需要依照语法规则组成句子。英语考试中有一个大家都非常熟悉的常客——定语从句,无论是在单项选择、完型填空,还是在阅读理解和书面表达中也是变换着各种形式进行考察。因此,大家一定要学会在听课和刷题中不断揣摩其中存在的规律,再反过来通过题目精炼。

一、定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句子中修饰一个名词或代词。

被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词要保持数的一致。

关系词

先行词

从句成分

           

  

关关系代

   who

  主语

Do you know the man who is talking with your mother?

whom, whichthat在从句中做宾语时,常可以省略,但介词提前时后面关系代词不能省略,也不可以用that

   whom

  宾语

Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working

The boy (whom) she loved died in the war..

   whose

 人或物

  定语

I like those books whose topics are about history.

The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.

   that

 人或物

主语,宾语

A plane is a machine that can fly.

She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.

   which

主语,宾语

The book (which) I gave you was worth $10.

The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

   as

 人或物

主语,宾语

He is such a person as is respected by all of us.

This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.

as做宾语一般不省略

关关系副

   when

   时间

时间状语

I will never forget the day when we met there.

可用on which

   where

   地点

地点状语

This is the house where I was born.

可用in which

why

   原因

原因状语

I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.

可用for which

 

二、that与which, who, whom的用法区别

  

    用法说明

  

只用that的情况

1.先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时

2.先行词被all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few等修饰时

3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时

4.先行词既指人又指物时

5.先行词被the only, the very修饰时

6.句中已经有whowhich时,为了避免重复时

1.He told me everything that he knows.

 

2.All the books that you offered has been given out.

 

3.This is the best film that I have ever read.

 

4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered.

 

5.He is the only man that I want to see.

 

6.Who is the man that is making a speech?

只用which, who, whom的情况

1.在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which指代物,用who/whom指人

2.在由介词+关系代词引导的定语从句中,只能用which指物,whom指人。

3.先行词本身是that时,关系词用which, 先行词为those, one, he时多用who

1.He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study.

 

2.I like the person to whom the teacher is talking.

 

3.Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

 

三、as、which和that的区别

从句

       

            

限制性定语从句中

名词前有suchthe same修饰时,关系代词用as,不能用which

He is not such a fool as he looks.

Don’t read such books as you can’t understand.

非限制性定语从句中

aswhich都可以指代前面整个主句。如果有正如,象的含义,并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后面,那么用as;而which引导的从句只能放主句后,并无正如的意思。

They won the game, as we had expected.

They won the game, which we hadn’t expected.

As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.

the same... as

the same ...that

the same... as指同类事物

the same ...that 指原物

That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类工具,不是同一把)

That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是我上周用过的工具。

 

注意:the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由that, in which 引导或不用引导词。

 

四、定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别

 

  

  

定语从句     与并列句

定语从句与并列句的主要区别在于:并列句有像andbutso等并列连词或两个句子用分号连接,这时就不能再用引导定语从句的关系词了。

Mr Li has three daughtersnone of _____ is an engineer

Mr Li has three daughtersbut none of _____ is a dancer

从结构上看,小题是定语从句,故填上whom

小题有并列连词but,是并列句,故填上代词 them

定语从句

状语从句

定语从句的前面有名词作先行词,而状语从句没有先行词。

This is the place where we used to live a few years ago.

这是几年前我们居住的地方。(定语从句,先行词为the place

Let’s go where we can find a better job.

我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。(地点状语从句)

定语从句修饰、限制、说明名词,只能放在先行词的后面,而状语从句说明动作发生的情况,并且可以放在主句的前面。

Do you know the time when the class is over? 你知道下课的时间吗?(定语从句)

It was already five o’clock when the class was over.

=When the class was over, it was already five o’clock.

当下课时己经是5点了。(时间状语从句)

When, wherewhy在引导定语从句时可以用介词+which”的结构来替换,在引导状语从句时却不行。

This is the factory in which (where) his father once worked.

这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。(定语从句)

Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。(状语从句)

定语从句中的关系词在从句中充当某种句子成分,因此去掉它则从句成分不完整;而结果状语从句中的连接词在从句中不作任何成分,去掉后从句的成分仍然完整。

It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是我们大家都喜欢的如此有趣的书。

as用作动词like的宾语,它引导的是定语从句)

It is such an interesting book that we all like it.

它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。

that不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语从句)

定语从句

同位语从句

定语从句在复合句中相当于形容词,对先行词起修饰、描述或限制的作用,与先行词之间有从属关系。同位语的作用相当于名词,对前面的名词给予补充说明或进一步解释,是前面名词的具体内容,与先行词之间是同位关系。

The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy.

她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。(同位语从句)

此句中的同位语从句 The news that she had passed the exam

可以改写成表语从句:The news is that he passed the exam.

The news that he told us interested all of us.

他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。(定语从句)

The news that he told us 是定语从句,此句不能改写为:The news is that he told us.

 定语从句

  强调句

强调句的结构为“It iswas+被强调部分+that+从句。被强调部分可以是除谓语以外的任何成分,当被强调部分是人时,还可用who代替that。这一句型中,一定不能因为被强调部分是表时间或地点的词就用whenwhere代替 that

It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport

It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works

从结构上看:

小题是强调句,故填 that

小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知the factory前差个介词in,故填 where

注意:由两个简单句合并成一个含定语从句的复句时,对于关系代词、关系副词的取舍是个难点。如下两句话,用起来倒方便,快捷口诀:

代代代①,副代副②;

有介要用代③,无介关副代④。

说明:①是说用关系代词代替定语从句中的代词或名词。即将两个句子合并成定语从句时,在确定先行词后(在主句中),把另一个句子(定语从句)中的代词或名词用关系代词代替,紧跟在先行词之后即可。这里当然要记住,应把被代替的代词或名词去掉。

e.g. The teacher is my brother.

He is teaching.

→The teacher who (代替代词he, 故也须将he去掉)is teaching is my brother.

②与①同理。即用关系副词代替定语从句中的副词(或作状语的介词短语)。这时的关系副词也照样紧跟在先行词之后。eg:

We visited the factory.

She worked in the factory last year.

→We visited the factory, Where (代替相当于副词作状语的介词词组in the factory) she worked last year.

③和④两句是指如果定语从句中有作状语的介词短语,保留介词就要用关系代词,或用关系副词代替整个介词短语。eg:

I still remember that day.

I joined the Party on that day.

→I still remember the day on which I joined the Party.

本文结合定语从句中的高频考点及易混点,运用表格和详实的例句帮助大家进行了系统梳理,希望能够对各位考生理解定语从句有所帮助。

最后华图教师祝各位考生备考顺利,早日站在三尺讲台绽放光彩!

责任编辑:张欣

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